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PPP Over SSH - a simple vpn solution for unix

What is PPP over SSH?

PPP over SSH is a quick and dirty vpn solution. You can run a PPP connection over an SSH connection to make for an easy, encrypted vpn. Sure, there are lots of existing, prepackaged vpn solutions out there, but how difficult are they to setup? What do you need to install on *both* points of the vpn connection? Why is the sky blue?

If you run any flavor of *nix (Free/Open/NetBSD, Linux, etc), chances are you have two things installed: ppp and ssh. With these two tools you can create your own encrypted vpn in only a few minutes. In this article, I will explain how to set it up under FreeBSD, though it should be similar in other OS's.

What do I need to know?

Before I get into the details, I'm first going to explain the situation I'm using ppp over ssh in. You need two machines for this, your client (say, my laptop) and the endpoint (one of my freebsd servers). Here's a picture, so you can get a general idea of what is going on and what the final result will be:

The gist of it is as follows: My laptop is on an insecure, wireless, untrusted network. I want my traffic to be more secure, so people can't gather anything useful out of my packets they sniff over the air. My server is on a more trusted network, so that's where I'll want to tunnel all of my traffic. From there, my traffic will hit the Internet or whatever it's intended destination may be.

Special mentions should be made: If I refer to client, I'm talking about my laptop. If I refer to gateway, I'm referring to my endpoint server on the trusted network.

What do I need to do?

There are many steps here, make sure you do all of them :)

You need root

Before you can actually run ppp(8), you must have root on both the client and gateway machines. Make sure you do.

Create an ssh key

First, you're going to need a passphraseless ssh key so we can login to your vpn gateway without a password. You do this by using the ssh-keygen command.

ssh-keygen -N "" -t rsa -f ~/.ssh/ppp.key

This should create two files, a public and private key: ~/.ssh/ppp.key and ~/.ssh/ The first one is your private key, you'll need to keep that on your client machine. The public key needs to go on your gateway (vpn endpoint). Assuming your end point is running OpenSSH, you need to copy the contents of your public key into ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on the gateway server. That's all you need to do for ssh keys right now , I'll come back to the key later.

Client ppp.conf

The next file you want to look at is /etc/ppp/ppp.conf. This is where FreeBSD's ppp(8) looks for it's configuration. You need to add a new entry, I called mine vpn. Here i what I used:

  set ifaddr
  set dial 
  set device "!env SSH_AUTH_SOCK= ssh -C -c blowfish -i /home/psionic/.ssh/ppp.key [email protected]"
Remeber, this configuration is for the client only. The first line tells ppp to create a tunnel between and The first IP on this line is the desired IP of the client on your new private network. The second address is the target IP of the tunnel, which is the gateway.

These two IPs can be different, as long as they are on the same subnet and are in the nonroutable range. It'd work cleaner aswell if you didn't pick a subnet already in use in either end of your network, if any are in use at all.

The only special note here, is the device used in this ppp session. It is not a device, but ppp is told to execute ssh(1) and use it as a transport medium. It will ssh to with the private key we created in the last step.

Gateway ppp.conf

The ppp.conf configuration for the gateway is much simpler. Again, I called the new section vpn. Here:
  set ifaddr
Again, the first ip in that line is the desired private ip of this machine, which is the gateway this time. Remember above when we set the client's ip to and the tunnel endpoint ip to

More ssh key business

I said we'd come back to the ssh key, right? You should now have your private key on the client as ~/.ssh/ppp.key and have put the contents of the public key (~/.ssh/ into the gateway's ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file. You can verify that this key is working by doing:
 ssh -i ~/.ssh/ppp.key yourgatewayserver
If it lets you login without prompting for a password, then you've done it right. If it doesn't work, then you probably didn't copy the public key properly or at all. Check the permissions of the .ssh directory and the authorized_keys file on the gateway. .ssh should be 0700 and authorized_keys should be 0600.

Assuming all goes well, we'll need to tell the gateway to execute a specific command for the key we are using. Your current authorized_keys file should have something looking vaguely like this:
 ssh-rsa AAAAB....lotsofcharacters...= [email protected] 
We need to add a command section now. Add this:
command="op pppvpn" ssh-rsa AAAAB...etc...
All you add is a command="op pppvpn" to the beginning of the line. That command is just what it looks like: when you login with the key you created, it will run "op pppvpn" regardless of what command you try to run, or even if you try to get a login shell. This secures your gateway by greatly limiting what can be done should your private key become compromised. Granted, with a ppp connection they'll be able to pretend they are coming from your gateway server, but they won't get access to the machine itself.

Installing 'op'

You don't have to do this. I use op to run things as root. It's similar to sudo, but I think it's easier to configure. Anyway, I have an entry in my op.access:
pppvpn  /usr/sbin/ppp -direct vpn; users=psionic environment
This means that when I (psionic) type "op pppvpn", then op will run "/usr/sbin/ppp -direct vpn" as root for me.

You can alternatively use sudo or put your public key in your root user's .ssh/authorized_keys and ssh to the server as root. Either way, you need to be able to ssh to your gateway from your client and attain root privileges so you can run ppp(8) on the gateway.

Let's test it!

Everything should be setup now:
  • ppp.conf on the client
  • ppp.conf on the gateway
  • ssh key with public/private parts put in the right places
  • root access attainable through ssh login on the gateway with the ssh key
We can now try starting our vpn, as root on the client, type:
ppp -auto vpn
Now try pinging the gateway ip, which if you remember should be (unless you set it differently).
nightfall(~) [1012] % sudo ppp -auto vpn
Working in auto mode
Using interface: tun0
nightfall(~) [1013] % ping
PING ( 56 data bytes
64 bytes from icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=2.672 ms
Works! Now, how do you get traffic to go through this tunnel? Use routes. An example would be if I wanted all my traffic to go through the tunnel:
nightfall(~) [1001] % sudo route add
add host gateway
nightfall(~) [1002] % sudo route add
add host gateway
nightfall(~) [1003] % sudo route add
add host gateway

nightfall(~) [1004] % traceroute
traceroute: Warning: has multiple addresses; using
traceroute to (, 64 hops max, 40 byte packets
 1 (  2.589 ms  1.707 ms  1.728 ms
 2 (  2.673 ms  2.197 ms  1.966 ms
 3 (  2.724 ms  2.607 ms  2.203 ms
And we're all done! You can see that the first route goes to


So now you know how to tunel with ppp using ssh as transport. If something in this article is unclear or you need more information, shoot me an email and I'll try and clear it up for you :)